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Introduction to the gas laws. All Basque.

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Gasaren propietateak. All Bosanski. Oxford, U. Chang, R.

New York: Random House. Chiappetta, E. A quantitative analysis of high school chemistry textbooks for scientific literacy themes and expository learning aids. Journal of Research in Science Teaching — Clark, P. Atomism versus thermodynamics.

Howson, ed. Cambridge, U. Clausius, R. On the nature of the motion which we call heat. Philosophical Magazine — Cornely-Moss, K. Exam question exchange: Kinetic theory of gases. Coppola, B. Mea culpa: Formal education and the disintegrated world. Science and Education 7: 31— De Regt, H. Philosophy and the kinetic theory of gases. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 31— Dickerson, R.

Chemical Principles 4th edn. Dorling, J. Maxwell' attempt to arrive at non-speculative foundations for the kinetic theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 1: — Duhem, P. New York: Atheneum original work published in Duschl, R. New York: Teachers College Press. Elkana, Y. The Interaction Between Science and Philosophy. Gallagher, J. Prospective and practicing secondary school science teachers' knowledge and beliefs about the philosophy of science. Science Education — Garber, E. Maxwell on Molecules and Gases.

Gavroglu, K. The reaction of the British physicists and chemists to van der Waals' early work and to the law of corresponding states. Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences — Hanson, N. Patterns of Discovery. Harrison, A. Secondary students mental models of atoms and molecules: Implications for teaching science. Hein, M. Foundations of College Chemistry Spanish edition. Hodson, D. Towards a philosophically more valid science curriculum.

Science Education 19— Philosophic stance of secondary school science teachers, curriculum experiences, and children' understanding of science: Some preliminary findings. Interchange 41— Holtzclaw, H. General Chemistry 8th edn. Jaynes, E. Foundations of probability theory and statistical mechanics. Delaware Seminar in the Foundations of Physics 1: 76— Kitchener, R.

Piaget' epistemic subject and science education: Epistemological versus psychological issues. Science and Education 2: — Kitcher, P. Koulaidis, V. Philosophy of science: An empirical study of teachers' views. Kuhn, T. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions 2nd edn.

Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lakatos, I. Falsification and the methodology of scientific research programmes, in I. Lakatos and A.

Gas Properties

Musgrave, eds, Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge pp. Lederman, N. Students' and teachers' conceptions of the nature of science: A review of the research. Students' perceptions of tentativeness in science: Development, use, and sources of change. Lin, Q. Numeric and conceptual understanding of general chemistry at a minority institution. Mahan, B. University Chemistry 4th edn, Spanish. Wilmington, DE: Addison-Wesley. Maskill, R. Pupils' questions, alternative frameworks and the design of science teaching. Mason, D.

Description

It describes a quantity called the distribution function, f , which depends on a position, velocity, and the time. In a hot dense gas, the atoms constantly experience collisions with each other, which lead to excitation to the different possible energy levels. The collisional excitation follows radiative de-excitation in timescales of the order of nanoseconds.

For a constant temperature and pressure, a dynamic equilibrium is established between collisional excitations and radiative de-excitations, which lead to particular distribution of the atoms among different energy levels. Most of the atoms are at low-lying levels. The number of atoms at higher levels decreases exponentially with energy level. At low temperature, the faster the population drops at the higher levels.