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Gasaren propietateak. All Bosanski. Oxford, U. Chang, R.
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It describes a quantity called the distribution function, f , which depends on a position, velocity, and the time. In a hot dense gas, the atoms constantly experience collisions with each other, which lead to excitation to the different possible energy levels. The collisional excitation follows radiative de-excitation in timescales of the order of nanoseconds.
For a constant temperature and pressure, a dynamic equilibrium is established between collisional excitations and radiative de-excitations, which lead to particular distribution of the atoms among different energy levels. Most of the atoms are at low-lying levels. The number of atoms at higher levels decreases exponentially with energy level. At low temperature, the faster the population drops at the higher levels.